Copyright © Barb Stuckey 2014


    The information and quotes in both Taste What You’re Missing (hardback) and Taste (paperback) came from personal interviews I conducted over the course of the two years I spent writing the books. These conversations were also supported by the following published research.



    What Are You Missing?

    1. Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, The Physiology of Taste: Or, Meditations on Transcendental Gastronomy (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2002), TK.
    2. Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, The Physiology of Taste: Or, Meditations on Transcendental Gastronomy, trans. M. F. K. Fisher (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978), TK.
    3. Gerard J. Musante, The Structure House Weight Loss Plan: Achieve Your Ideal Weight through a New Relationship with Food (New York: Fireside, 2007), 215.


    Tip of Your Tongue, Tip of the Iceberg

    1. Michael Macht and Jochen Mueller, “Increased Negative Emotional Responses in PROP Supertasters,” Physiology & Behavior 90, nos. 2–3 (2007): 466–72.
    2. Paul Rozin, “Taste-Smell Confusions and the Duality of the Olfactory Sense,” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 31, no. 4 (1982), 397–401.
    3. Macht and Mueller, “Increased Negative.”
    4. Danielle R. Reed, “Birth of a New Breed of Supertaster,” Chemical Senses 33, no. 6 (2008): 489–91.


    Chapter 1: Taste

    1. Michael Macht and Jochen Mueller, “Increased Negative Emotional Responses in PROP Supertasters,” Physiology & Behavior 90, nos. 2–3 (2007): TK.
    2. Paul B. Whittemore, “Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Tasting and Reported Depression,” Journal of Clinical Psychology 42, no. 2 (1990): TK [260–63].
    3. Jianshe Chen, “Food Oral Processing—A Review,” Food Hydrocolloids 23, no. 1 (2009): 7.
    4. Henry B. Heath, Source Book of Flavors (Westport, CT: AVI, 1981), TK.
    5. Michael O’Mahony, “Sensory Adaptation,” Journal of Sensory Studies 1, nos. 3–4 (1986): TK [237–58].
    6. A. I. Spielman, “Interaction of Saliva and Taste,” Journal of Dental Research 69, no. 3 (1990): 838.
    7. Juyun Lim and Maxwell B. Johnson, “Potential Mechanisms of Retronasal Odor Referral to the Mouth,” Chemical Senses 36, no. 3 (2011): 283–89.
    8. Jeremy M. Wolfe et al., Sensation & Perception, 2nd ed. (Sunderland, MA: Sinauer, 2009), TK.
    9. Paul Rozin and Hely Tuorila, “Simultaneous and Temporal Contextual Influences on Food Acceptance,” Food Quality and Preference 4, nos. 1–2 (1993): 1l–20.
    10. Paul A. S. Breslin and Alan C. Spector, “Mammalian Taste Perception,” Current Biology 18, no. 4 (2008): TK [R148–55].
    11. Chen, “Food Oral Processing,” 1–25.
    12. P. W. Lucas et al., “Food Physics and Oral Physiology,” Food Quality and Preference 13 (2002): 203–13.
    13. Josephine Todrank and Linda M. Bartoshuk, “A Taste Illusion: Taste Sensation Localized by Touch,” Physiology & Behavior 50, no. 5 (1991): 1027–31.
    14. Paul Rozin, “Taste-Smell Confusions and the Duality of the Olfactory Sense,” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 31, no. 4 (1982), 397–401.
    15. O’Mahony, “Sensory Adaptation,” 237–58.
    16. Derek J. Snyder, Katharine Fast, and Linda M. Bartoshuk, “Valid Comparisons of Suprathreshold Sensations,” Journal of Consciousness Studies 11, nos. 7–8 (2004): 96–112.
    17. Paul A. S. Breslin and Liquan Huang, “Human Taste: Peripheral Anatomy, Taste Transduction, and Coding,” Advances in Otorhinolaryngology 63 (2006): 152–90.
    18. C. Michon et al., “The Investigation of Gender-Related Sensitivity Differences in Food Perception,” Journal of Sensory Studies 24, no. 6 (2009): 922–37.
    19. Linda M. Bartoshuk, “Taste Mixtures: Is Mixture Suppression Related to Compression?,” Physiology and Behavior 14, no. 5 (1975): 643–49.


    Chapter 2: Smell

    1. Avery N. Gilbert and Charles J. Wysocki, “The National Geographic Smell Survey Results,” National Geographic 172, no. 4 (1987): 514–25.
    2. Boyd Gibbons, “The Intimate Sense of Smell,” National Geographic 170, no. 3 (1986): TK [324–61].
    3. Paul Rozin, “Taste-Smell Confusions and the Duality of the Olfactory Sense,” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 31, no. 4 (1982), 397–401.
    4. Nobel Media AB/TWI, “Portrait of the 2004 Nobel Laureates in Medicine,” video, 7:00,
    5. Marvin L. Whisman et al., “Odorant Evaluation: A Study of Ethanethiol and Tetrahydrothiophene as Warning Agents in Propane,” Environmental Science & Technology 12, no. 12 (1978): 1285–88.
    6. Elizabeth A. Baldwin et al., “Flavor Trivia and Tomato Aroma: Biochemistry and Possible Mechanisms for Control of Important Aroma Components,” HortScience 35, no. 6 (2000): TK [1013–22].
    7. T. Hummel, H. Guel, and W. Delank, “Olfactory Sensitivity of Subjects Working in Odorous Environments,” Chemical Senses 29, no. 6 (2004): 533–36.
    8. Mats Bende and Steven Nordin, “Perceptual Learning in Olfaction: Professional Wine Tasters versus Controls,” Physiology & Behavior 62, no. 5 (1997): 1065–70.
    9. Christopher H. Hawkes and Richard L. Doty, The Neurology of Olfaction(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), TK.
      1. W. Wippich, S. Mecklenbräuker, and J. Trouet, “Implicit and Explicit Memories of Odors,” Archiv fur Psychologie 141, no. 3 (1989): 195–211.
      2. Harry Klee’s home page,
      3. Brian London et al., “Predictors of Prognosis in Patients with Olfactory Disturbance,” Annals of Neurology 63, no. 2 (2008): 159–66.
      4. Bende and Nordin, “Perceptual Learning.”
      5. Wendy V. Parr, K. Geoffrey White, and David A. Heatherbell, “Exploring the Nature of Wine Expertise: What Underlies Wine Experts’ Olfactory Recognition Memory Advantage?,”  Food Quality and Preference 15, no. 5 (2004): 411–20.
      6. Marcia Levin Pelchat, “Excretion and Perception of a Characteristic Odor in Urine after Asparagus Ingestion: A Psychophysical and Genetic Study,” Chemical Senses 36, no. 1 (2011): 9–17.
      7. Richard J. Stevenson, John Prescott, and Robert A. Boakes, “The Acquisition of Taste Properties by Odors,” Learning and Motivation 26, no. 4 (1995): 433–55.
      8. K. Marshall et al., “The Capacity of Humans to Identify Components in Complex Odor-Taste Mixtures,” Chemical Senses 31, no. 6 (2006): 539–45.
      9. René D. Balogh and Richard H. Porter, “Olfactory Preferences Resulting from Mere Exposure in Human Neonates,” Infant Behavior and Development 9, no. 4 (1986): 395–401.
      10. S. Monnery-Patris et al., “Development of Olfactory Ability in Children: Sensitivity and Identification,” Developmental Psychobiology 51, no. 3 (2009): 268–76.
      11. Maria Larsson, Deborah Finkel, and Nancy L. Pedersen, “Odor Identification: Influences of Age, Gender, Cognition, and Personality,” Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences 55B, no. 5 (2000): P304, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source.
    10. Ronald W. Visschers et al., “Cross-Modality of Texture and Aroma Perception Is Independent of Orthonasal or Retronasal Stimulation,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54, no. 15 (2006): 5509−5515.
    11. Gordon M. Shepherd, “Smell Images and the Flavour System in the Human Brain,” Nature 444, no. 7117 (2006): TK [316−21].
    12. Yaara Yeshurun et al., “The Privileged Brain Representation of First Olfactory Associations,” Current Biology 19, no. 21 (2009): 1869–74.
    13. Johannes Frasnelli, Mary Ungermann, and Thomas Hummel, “Ortho- and Retronasal Presentation of Olfactory Stimuli Modulates Odor Percepts,”  Chemosensory Perception 1, no. 1 (2008): 9–15.
    14. Gérard Brand and Laurence Jacquot, “Quality of Odor and Olfactory Lateralization Processes in Humans,” Neuroscience Letters 316, no. 2 (2001): 91–94.
    15. Yaara Yeshurun and Noam Sobel, “An Odor is Not Worth a Thousand Words: From Multidimensional Odors to Unidimensional Odor Objects,” Annual Review of Psychology 61, no. 1 (2010): 219–41.
    16. Elizabeth A. Baldwin et al., “Flavor Trivia and Tomato Aroma: Biochemistry and Possible Mechanisms for Control of Important Aroma Components,” HortScience 35, no. 6 (2000): TK [1013–22].
    17. Paul A. S. Breslin, “Multi-modal Sensory Integration: Evaluating Foods and Mates,” Chemosensory Perception 1, no. 1 (2008): TK, doi:10.1007/s12078-008-9021-5.
    18. Martin R. Yeomans et al., “The Role of Expectancy in Sensory and Hedonic Evaluation: The Case of Smoked Salmon Ice-Cream,” Food Quality and Preference 19, no. 6 (2008): 565–73.
    19. Malika Auvray and Charles Spence, “The Multisensory Perception of Flavor,” Consciousness and Cognition 17, no. 3 (2008): 1016–31.
    20. TK, “Dutch Winemaker Ilja Gort Insures His Nose for £3.9 Million,” Times, March 19, 2008.


    Chapter 3: Touch

    1. Shane Walker and John Prescott, “Psychophysical Properties of Mechanical Oral Irritation,” Journal of Sensory Studies 18, no. 4 (2003): 325–45.
    2. Kristin A. Gerhold and Diana M. Bautista, “Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Trigeminal Chemosensation,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1170, no. 1 (2009): 184–89, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.03895.x.
    3. Pairin Hongsoongnern and Edgar Chambers IV, “A Lexicon for Texture and Flavor Characteristics of Fresh and Processed Tomatoes,” Journal of Sensory Studies23, no. 5 (2008): TK [583–99].
      1. Barry G. Green, “Oral Astringency: A Tactile Component of Flavor,” Acta Psychologica 84, no. 1 (1993): 119–125.
      2. S. W. Medicis and K. H. Hiiemae, “Natural Bite Sizes for Common Foods,” Journal of Dental Research 77, Special Issue A (1998): 295.
      3. Jan Weiss et al., “Loss-of-Function Mutations in Sodium Channel Nav1.7 Cause Anosmia,” Nature 472, no. 7342 (2011): 186–90.
      4. Alina S. Szczesniak and Earl L. Kahn, “Consumer Awareness of and Attitudes to Food Texture,” Journal of Texture Studies 2, no. 3 (1971): 280–95.
      5. Salvador Soto-Faraco and Gustavo Deco, “Multisensory Contributions to the Perception of Vibrotactile Events,” Behavioural Brain Research 196, no. 2 (2009): 145–54.
      6. Jean-Xavier Guinard and Rossella Mazzucchelli, “The Sensory Perception of Texture and Mouthfeel,” Trends in Food Science & Technology 7, no. 7 (1996): 213–19.
    4. Alina S. Szczesniak and Elaine Z. Skinner, “Meaning of Texture Words to the Consumer,” Journal of Texture Studies 4, no. 3 (1973): 378–84.
    5. Green, “Oral Astringency.”
    6. Alina Surmacka Szczesniak, “Texture Is a Sensory Property,” Food Quality and Preference 13, no. 4 (2002): 215–25.
    7. Lina Engelen et al., “The Effect of Oral and Product Temperature on the Perception of Flavor and Texture Attributes of Semi-solids,” Appetite 41, no. 3 (2003): 273–81.
    8. Susan S. Schiffman, Gerard Musante, Judith Conger, “Application of Multidimensional Scaling to Ratings of Foods for Obese and Normal Weight Individuals,” Physiology & Behavior 21, no. 3 (1978): 417–22.
    9. Michael H. Tunick, “Food Texture Analysis in the 21st Century,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59, no. 5 (2011): 1477–80.
    10. James M. Weiffenbach, “Touch and Taste in the Mouth: Presence and Character of Sapid Solutions,” Acta Psychologica 84, no. 1 (1993): 127–30.
    11. Alina S. Szczesniak and Earl L. Kahn, Texture Contrasts and Combinations: A Valued Consumer Attribute, Journal of Texture Studies 15, no. 3 (1984): 285–301.
    12. Alina Surmacka Szczesniak, “Textural Perceptions and Food Quality,” Journal of Food Quality 14, no. 1 (1991): 75–85.
    13. B. A. Stuck et al., “Chemosensory Event-Related Potentials in Relation to Side of Stimulation, Age, Sex, and Stimulus Concentration,” Clinical Neurophysiology 117, no. 6 (2006): 1367–75.
    14. Jeb Gleason-Allured, “NEXT: Sensory Frontiers,” Perfumer & Flavorist 35, no. 1 (2010): 18–20.


    Chapter 4: Sight

    1. Jesse Hirsch, “A Fine Tune to Match Your Entree,” New York Times, July 21, 2011.
    2. Maud Lelièvre et al., “Beer-Trained and Untrained Assessors Rely More on Vision than on Taste When They Categorize Beers,” Chemosensory Perception 2, no. 3 (2009): TK [143–53].
    3. Debra A. Zellner, Angela M. Bartoli, and Robert Eckard, “Influence of Color on Odor Identification and Liking Ratings.” American Journal of Psychology 104, no. 4 (1991): 547–61.
    4. 4.     Gil Morrot, Frédéric Brochet, and Denis Dubourdieu, “The Color of Odors,” Brain and Language 79, no. 2 (2001): TK [309–20].
    5. Nobuyuki Sakai et al., “The Effect of Visual Images on Perception of Odors,” Chemical Senses 30, no. S1 (2005): i244–45.
    6. Daisy E. Del Castillo et al., “Hue and Taste Perception: When Color Meets the Tongue,” (poster, Western Psychological Association Conference, Irvine, CA, 2008).
    7. Tanya L. Chartrand and John A. Bargh, “The Chameleon Effect: The Perception-Behavior Link and Social Interaction,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76, no. 6 (1999): 893–910.
    8. Maya U. Shankar et al., “The Influence of Color and Label Information on Flavor Perception,” Chemosensory Perception 2, no. 2 (2009): 53–58.
    9. Jordi Ballester et al., “The Odor of Colors: Can Wine Experts and Novices Distinguish the Odors of White, Red, and Rosé Wines?,” Chemosensory Perception 2, no. 4 (2009): 203–13.
    10. Jeannine F. Delwiche, “Impact of Color on Perceived Wine Flavor,” Foods & Food Ingredients Journal of Japan 208, no. 5 (2003), TK [349–52].
    11. Zellner, Bartoli, and Eckard, “Influence of Color.”
    12. F. J. Francis, “Quality as Influenced by Color,” Food Quality and Preference 6, no. 3 (1995): 149–55.
    13. L. Barthomeuf, S. Rousset, S. Droit-Volet, “Emotion and Food. Do the Emotions Expressed on Other People’s Faces Affect the Desire to Eat Liked and Disliked Food Products?,” Appetite 52, no. 1 (2009): 27–33.


    Chapter 5: Sound

    1. Nicolas Guéguen, Hélène Le Guellec, and Céline Jacob, “Sound Level of Background Music and Alcohol Consumption: An Empirical Evaluation,” Perceptual and Motor Skills 99, no. 1: TK [34–38].
    2. Melanie Reid, “How Guns & Roses Can Change Your Tune on Wine,” Times, May 13, 2008.
    3. Carol M. Christensen and Zata M. Vickers, “Relationships of Chewing Sounds to Judgments of Food Crispness,” Journal of Food Science 46, no. 2 (1981): 574–78.
    4. University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, “Study: Baby Boomers Survived Rock ’N’ Roll Era with Hearing Intact,” press release, January 14, 2010.
    5. Hendrik N. J. Schifferstein, “The Perceived Importance of Sensory Modalities in Product Usage: A Study of Self-Reports,” Acta Psychologica 121, no. 1 (2006): TK [41–64].
    6. Charlotte Mountford, “Visiting Montes Winery,” Revolver (Colchagua, Chile), April 7, 2009, in newsletter, Montes News 11: 18.
    7. Richard Woodard, “Montes: Music Makes Wine Reach Parts It Otherwise Couldn’t Reach,” May 14, 2008,
    8. Reid, “How Guns & Roses.”
    9. Massimiliano Zampini and Charles Spence, “Assessing the Role of Sound in the Perception of Food and Drink,” Chemosensory Perception 3, no. 1 (2009): 57–67.
    10. Paul Reidinger, “A Sound Choice,” review of TK, San Francisco Bay Guardian, DATE TK.
    11. A. T. Woods et al., “Effect of Background Noise on Food Perception,” Food Quality and Preference 22, no. 1 (2011): 42–47.
    12. Schifferstein, “Perceived Importance,” 41–64.
    13. C. Ferber and M. Cabanac, “Influence of Noise on Gustatory Affective Ratings and Preference for Sweet or Salt,” Appetite 8, no. 3 (1987): 229–235.
    14. Charles Spence, Maya U. Shankar, and Heston Blumenthal, “‘Sound Bites’: Auditory Contributions to the Perception and Consumption of Food and Drink,” in Art and the Senses, ed. Francesca Bacci and David Melcher (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), TK [207–37].
    15. Zata M. Vickers, “Crispness and Crunchiness—A Difference in Pitch?,” Journal of Texture Studies 15, no. 2 (1984): 157–63.
    16. Charles Spence and Maya U. Shankar, “The Influence of Auditory Cues on the Perception of, and Responses to, Food and Drink,” Journal of Sensory Studies 25, no. 3 (2010): 406–30.
    17. Anne-Sylvie Crisinel and Charles Spence, “A Sweet Sound? Food Names Reveal Implicit Associations Between Taste and Pitch,” Perception 39, no. 3 (2010): 417–25.
    18. Anne-Sylvie Crisinel and Charles Spence, “Implicit Association between Basic Tastes and Pitch,” Neuroscience Letters 464, no. 1 (2009): 39–42.
    19. Massimiliano Zampini and Charles Spence, “The Role of Auditory Cues in Modulating the Perceived Crispness and Staleness of Potato Chips,” Journal of Sensory Studies 19, no. 5 (2004): 347–63.
    20. Salvador Soto-Faraco and Gustavo Deco, “Multisensory Contributions to the Perception of Vibrotactile Events,” Behavioural Brain Research 196, no. 2 (2009): 145–54.
    21. C. Dacremont, “Spectral Composition of Eating Sounds Generated by Crispy, Crunchy and Crackly Foods,” Journal of Texture Studies 26, no. 1 (1995): 27–43.
    22. C. Dacremont, B. Colas, and F. Sauvageot, “Contribution of Air- and Bone-Conduction to the Creation of Sounds Perceived During Sensory Evaluation of Foods,” Journal of Texture Studies 22, no. 4 (1991): 443–56.
    23. Lisa Duizer, “A Review of Acoustic Research for Studying the Sensory Perception of Crisp, Crunchy and Crackly Textures,” Trends in Food Science & Technology 12, no. 1 (2001): 17–24.
    24. Zata Vickers, “Sound Perception and Food Quality,” Journal of Food Quality 14, no. 1 (1991): 87–96.
    25. Zata M. Vickers, “Pleasantness of Food Sounds,” Journal of Food Science 48, no. 3 (1983): 783–86.
    26. Christensen and Vickers, “Relationships of Chewing.”
    27. Schifferstein, “Perceived Importance,” 41–64.
    28. J. M. Arimi et al., “Development of an Acoustic Measurement System for Analyzing Crispiness during Mechanical and Sensory Testing,” Journal of Texture Studies 41, no. 3 (2010): 320–40.


    Chapter 6: How the Pros Taste

    1. Michael O’Mahony, “Sensory Adaptation,” Journal of Sensory Studies 1, nos. 3–4 (1986): TK [237–58].
    2. Howard R. Moskowitz and Bert Krieger, “The Contribution of Sensory Liking to Overall Liking: An Analysis of Six Food Categories,” Food Quality and Preference 6, no. 2, (1995), 83–90.
    3. Egon Peter Köster, “The Psychology of Food Choice: Some Often Encountered Fallacies,” Food Quality and Preference 14, nos. 5–6 (2003): 359–73.
    4. M. A. Drake and G. V. Civille, “Flavor Lexicons,” Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 2, no. 1 (2003): 33–40.
    5. Linda M. Bartoshuk, Katharine Fast, and Derek J. Snyder, “Differences in Our Sensory Worlds: Invalid Comparisons With Labeled Scales,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 14, no. 3 (2005): 122–25.
    6. Drake and Civille, “Flavor Lexicons.”
    7. Pairin Hongsoongnern and Edgar Chambers IV, “A Lexicon for Texture and Flavor Characteristics of Fresh and Processed Tomatoes,” Journal of Sensory Studies 23, no. 5 (2008): 583–99.


    Chapter 7: From Womb to Tomb

    1. Cheryl A. Frye and Ginger L. Demolar, “Menstrual Cycle and Sex Differences Influence Salt Preference,” Physiology & Behavior 55, no. 1 (1994): 193–97.
    2. Mary Brown Parlee, “Menstrual Rhythm in Sensory Processes: A Review of Fluctuations in Vision, Olfaction, Audition, Taste, and Touch,” Psychological Bulletin 93, no. 3 (1983): 539–48.
    3. Richard L. Doty and E. Leslie Cameron, “Sex Differences and Reproductive Hormone Influences on Human Odor Perception,” Physiology & Behavior 97, no. 2 (2009): TK [213–28].
    4. Frye and Demolar, “Menstrual Cycle.”
    5. Mutsumi Kuga et al., “Changes in Gustatory Sense During Pregnancy,” Acta Oto-laryngologica: Supplementum 546 (2002): 146–53.
    6. Susan A. Sullivan and Leann L. Birch, “Pass the Sugar, Pass the Salt: Experience Dictates Preference,” Developmental Psychology 26, no. 4 (1990): 546–51.
    7. TK, “Role of Environmental Factors in Parkinson’s Disease,” in Frontiers in Parkinson’s Disease Research,ed. Aderbal S. Aguiar, Jr., and Rui D. S. Prediger (Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 2011 [not yet published]), TK.
      1. S. Nicolaidis, O. Galaverna, and C. H. Metzler, “Extracellular Dehydration during Pregnancy Increases Salt Appetite of Offspring,” American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 258, no. 1 (1990): R281–83.
      2. L. P. Spear, “The Adolescent Brain and Age-Related Behavioral Manifestations,” Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 24, no. 4 (2000): 417–63.
    8. W. J. Loesche et al., “Xerostomia, Xerogenic Medications and Food Avoidances in Selected Geriatric Groups,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 43, no. 4 (1995): 401–7.
    9. Frye and Demolar, “Menstrual Cycle.”
    10. Parlee, “Menstrual Rhythm.”
    11. Doty and Cameron, “Sex Differences,” 213–28.
    12. Frye and Demolar, “Menstrual Cycle.”
    13. Kuga et al., “Changes in Gustatory.”
    14. Evelia Navarrete-Palacios et al., “Lower Olfactory Threshold during the Ovulatory Phase of the Menstrual Cycle,” Biological Psychology 63, no. 3 (2003) 269–79.
    15. L. M. Bartoshuk, “Age and Hormonal Effects on Sweet Taste and Preference,” abstract, Appetite 49, no. 1 (2007): 277.
    16. Aderbal S. Aguiar, Jr., and Rui D. S. Prediger, eds., Frontiers in Parkinson’s Disease Research (Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 2011 [not yet published]), TK.
    17. Leann L. Birch and Stephanie L. Anzman, “Learning to Eat in an Obesogenic Environment: A Developmental Systems Perspective on Childhood Obesity,” Child Development Perspectives 4, no. 2 (2010): 138–43.
    18. Paul Rozin, “Family Resemblance in Food and Other Domains: The Family Paradox and the Role of Parental Congruence,” Appetite 16, no. 2 (1991): 93–102.
    19. David Labbe and Nathalie Martin, “Impact of Novel Olfactory Stimuli at Supra and Subthreshold Concentrations on the Perceived Sweetness of Sucrose after Associative Learning,” Chemical Senses 34, no. 8 (2009): 645–51.
    20. Paul Rozin and Linda Millman, “Family Environment, Not Heredity, Accounts for Family Resemblances in Food Preferences and Attitudes: A Twin Study,” Appetite 8, no. 2 (1987): 125–34.
    21. Patricia Pliner and Karen Hobden, “Development of a Scale to Measure the Trait of Food Neophobia in Humans,” Appetite 19, no. 2 (1992): 105–20.
    22. Marvin Zuckerman and Michael Neeb, “Sensation Seeking and Psychopathology,” Psychiatry Research, 1, no. 3 (1979): 255–64.
    23. Patricia Pliner, Marcia Pelchat, Marius Grabski, “Reduction of Neophobia in Humans by Exposure to Novel Foods,” Appetite 20, no. 2 (1993): 111–23.
    24. Susan S. Schiffman, “Intensification of Sensory Properties of Foods for the Elderly,” supplement, Journal of Nutrition 130, no. 4 (2000): 927–30S.
    25. C. M. Mistretta and R. M. Bradley, “Taste and Swallowing In Utero: A Discussion of Fetal Sensory Function,” British Medical Bulletin 31, no. 1 (1975): 80–84.
    26. Leann L. Birch, “Development of Food Preferences,” Annual Review of Nutrition 19, no. 1 (1999): 41–62.
    27. Susan Schiffman, “Food Recognition by the Elderly,” Journal of Gerontology 32, no. 5 (1977): 586–92.
    28. Richard H. Porter et al., “Breast-Fed Infants Respond to Olfactory Cues from Their Own Mother and Unfamiliar Lactating Females,” Infant Behavior and Development 15, no. 1 (1992): 85–93.
    29. Nicolaidis, Galaverna, and Metzler, “Extracellular Dehydration.”
    30. Felippe Felix et al., “Gustatory Alteration Evaluation in Patients with Chronic Otitis Media,” Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology (Impresso) 75, no. 4 (2009): TK [550–55].
    31. Phyllis Picklesimer, “Salmon Baby Food? Babies Need Omega-3s and a Taste for Fish, Scientist Says,” August 24, 2010,
    32. Joseph C. Stevens and William S. Cain, “Old-Age Deficits in the Sense of Smell as Gauged by Thresholds, Magnitude Matching, and Odor Identification,” Psychology and Aging 2, no. 1 (1987): 36–42.
    33. Hely Tuorila and Sari Mustonen, “Reluctant Trying of an Unfamiliar Food Induces Negative Affection for the Food, Appetite 54, no. 2 (2010): 418–21.
    34. C. Stallberg-White and P. Pliner, “The Effect of Flavor Principles on Willingness to Taste Novel Foods,” Appetite 33, no. 2 (1999): 209–21.
    35. Betty Ruth Carruth et al., “Prevalence of Picky Eaters among Infants and Toddlers and Their Caregivers’ Decisions about Offering a New Food,” supplement, Journal of the American Dietetic Association 104, no. 1 (2004): S57.
    36. Terence M. Dovey et al., “Food Neophobia and ‘Picky/Fussy’ Eating in Children: A Review,” Appetite 50, nos. 2–3 (2008): 181–93.
    37. Julie A. Mennella, Cara E. Griffin, and Gary K. Beauchamp, “Flavor Programming During Infancy,” Pediatrics 113, no. 4 (2004): 840–45.
    38. Julie A. Mennella, “Development of Food Preferences: Lessons Learned from Longitudinal and Experimental Studies,” Food Quality and Preference 17, nos. 7–8 (2006): 635–37.
    39. Julie A. Mennella et al., “Prenatal and Postnatal Flavor Learning by Human Infants,” Pediatrics 107, no. 6 (2001): e88.
    40. Julie A. Mennella and Gary K. Beauchamp, “Understanding the Origin of Flavor Preferences,” supplement, Chemical Senses 30 (2005): i242–43.
    41. Julie A. Mennella et al., “Variety Is the Spice of Life: Strategies for Promoting Fruit and Vegetable Acceptance during Infancy,” Physiology & Behavior 94, no. 1 (2008): 29–38.


    Chapter 8: Salt

    1. Nizar Nasri et al., “Cross-modal Interactions between Taste and Smell: Odour-Induced Saltiness Enhancement Depends on Salt Level,” Food Quality and Preference 22, no. 7 (2011): TK [678–82].
    2. Génica Lawrence et al., “Using Cross-modal Interactions to Counterbalance Salt Reduction in Solid Foods,” International Dairy Journal 21, no. 2 (2011): 103–10.
    3. S. Nicolaidis, O. Galaverna, and C. H. Metzler, “Extracellular Dehydration during Pregnancy Increases Salt Appetite of Offspring,” American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 258, no. 1 (1990): R281–83.
    4. Susan R. Crystal and Ilene L. Bernstein, “Infant Salt Preference and Mother’s Morning Sickness,” Appetite 30, no. 3 (1998): 297–307.
    5. Gary K. Beauchamp, Beverly J. Gowart, and Marianne Moran, “Developmental Changes in Salt Acceptability in Human Infants,” Developmental Psychobiology 19, no. 1 (1986): 75–83.
    6. Beverly J. Cowart and Gary K. Beauchamp, “The Importance of Sensory Context in Young Children’s Acceptance of Salty Tastes,” Child Development 57, no. 4 (1986): 1034–39.
    7. Michael Moss, “The Hard Sell on Salt,” New York Times, May 29, 2010.
    8. G. Lawrence et al., “Odour–Taste Interactions: A Way to Enhance Saltiness in Low-Salt Content Solutions,” Food Quality and Preference 20, no. 3 (2009): 241–48.
    9. David Kilcast, Marie-Odile Portmann, and Briege E. Byrne, “Sweetness of Bulk Sweeteners in Aqueous Solution in the Presence of Salts,” Food Chemistry 70, no. 1 (2000): 1–8.
    10. B. Gauthier, R. Freeman, and J. Beveridge, “Accidental Salt Poisoning in a Hospital Nursery,” Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health 5, no. 2 (1969): 101–5.
    11. Cowart and Beauchamp, “Importance of Sensory Context.”
    12. K. M. Appleton, “Changes in the Perceived Pleasantness of Fluids Before and After Fluid Loss through Exercise: A Demonstration of the Association between Perceived Pleasantness and Physiological Usefulness in Everyday Life, Physiology & Behavior 83, no. 5 (2005): 813–19.
    13. Mary Bertino, Gary K. Beauchamp, and Karl Engelman, “Increasing Dietary Salt Alters Salt Taste Preference,” Physiology & Behavior 38, no. 2 (1986): 203–13.
    14. Micah Leshem et al., “Enhanced Salt Appetite, Diet and Drinking in Traditional Bedouin Women in the Negev,” Appetite 50, no. 1 (2008): 71–82.
    15. Mary Bertino, Gary K. Beauchamp, and Karl Engelman, “Long-Term Reduction in Dietary Sodium Alters the Taste of Salt,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36, no. 6 (1982): 1134–44.
    16. Micah Leshem, “Biobehavior of the Human Love of Salt,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 33, no. 1 (2009): 1–17.
    17. Paul A. S. Breslin, “Interactions among Salty, Sour and Bitter Compounds,” Trends in Food Science & Technology 7, no. 12 (1996): TK [390–99].
    18. P.A.S. Breslin and G. K. Beauchamp, “Suppression of Bitterness by Sodium: Variation Among Bitter Taste Stimuli,” Chemical Senses 20, no. 6 (1995): 609–23.
    19. P. A. S. Breslin and G. K. Beauchamp, “Salt Enhances Flavour by Suppressing Bitterness,” Nature 387, no. 6633 (1997): 563.
    20. Crystal and Bernstein, “Infant Salt Preference.”
    21. Michael J. Morris, Elisa S. Na, and Alan Kim Johnson, “Salt Craving: The Psychobiology of Pathogenic Sodium Intake,” Physiology & Behavior 94, no. 5 (2008): 709–21.
    22. Betsy McKay, “PepsiCo Develops ‘Designer Salt’ to Chip Away at Sodium Intake,” Wall Street Journal, March 22, 2010.


    Chapter 9: Bitter

    1. Catherine Peyrot des Gachons et al., “Bitter Taste Induces Nausea,” Current Biology 21, no. 7 (2011): R248.
    2. Adam Drewnowski, “The Science and Complexity of Bitter Taste,” Nutrition Reviews 59, no. 6 (2001): 163–69.
    3. M. E. Dinehart et al., “Bitter Taste Markers Explain Variability in Vegetable Sweetness, Bitterness, and Intake,” Physiology & Behavior 87, no. 2 (2006): 304–13.
    4. Richard D. Mattes, “Influences on Acceptance of Bitter Foods and Beverages,” Physiology & Behavior 56, no. 6 (1994): 1229–36.
    5. Adam Drewnowski and Carmen Gomez-Carneros, “Bitter Taste, Phytonutrients, and the Consumer: A Review,” American Journal Clinical Nutrition 72, no. 6 (2000): 1424–35.
    6. Danielle R. Reed, Toshiko Tanaka, and Amanda H. McDaniel, “Diverse Tastes: Genetics of Sweet and Bitter Perception,” Physiology & Behavior 88, no. 3 (2006): 215–26.
    7. Glenn Roy, “Bitterness: Reduction and Inhibition,” Trends in Food Science & Technology 3 (1992): TK [85–91].
    8. Daryn Eller, “Retrain Your Taste Buds,” Health 16, no. 1 (2002): TK [44–46].
    9. Anne Barratt-Fornell and Adam Drewnowski, “The Taste of Health: Nature’s Bitter Gifts,” Nutrition Today 37, no. 4 (2002): TK [144–50].
    10. Elizabeth D. Capaldi and Gregory J. Privitera, “Decreasing Dislike for Sour and Bitter in Children and Adults,” Appetite 50, no. 1 (2008) 139–45.
    11.  Franz A. Koehler, Special Rations for the Armed Forces, 1946-53, QMC Historical Studies, Series II, No. 6 (Washington DC: Historical Branch, Office of the Quartermaster General, 1958), TK.
    12. Shuya Tanimura and Richard D. Mattes, “Relationships between Bitter Taste Sensitivity and Consumption of Bitter Substances,” Journal of Sensory Studies 8, no. 1 (1993): 31–41.
    13. Mattes, “Influences on Acceptance.”
    14. Drewnowski, “Science and Complexity.”
    15. Dinehart et al., “Bitter Taste Markers.”


    Chapter 10: Sweet

    1. Richard D. Mattes and Barry M. Popkin, “Nonnutritive Sweetener Consumption in Humans: Effects on Appetite and Food Intake and Their Putative Mechanisms,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89, no. 1 (2009): TK [1–14].
    2. J. A. Desor and Gary K. Beauchamp, “Longitudinal Changes in Sweet Preferences in Humans,” Physiology & Behavior 39, no. 5 (1987): 639–41.
    3. J. A. Mennella, “The Sweet Taste of Childhood,” in The Senses: A Comprehensive Reference, ed. A. I. Basbaum et al., vol. 4, Olfaction and Taste (San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2007), 183–88.
    4. Dean Krahn et al., “Sweet Intake, Sweet-Liking, Urges to Eat, and Weight Change: Relationship to Alcohol Dependence and Abstinence,” Addictive Behaviors 31, no. 4 (2006): 622–31.
    5. K. Junghanns, C. Veltrup, and T. Wetterling, “Craving Shift in Chronic Alcoholics,” European Addiction Research 6, no. 2 (2000): 64–70.
    6. Klaus Junghanns et al., “The Consumption of Cigarettes, Coffee and Sweets in Detoxified Alcoholics and Its Association with Relapse and a Family History of Alcoholism,” European Psychiatry 20, nos. 5–6 (2005): 451–55.
    7. Julie A. Mennella et al., “Sweet Preferences and Analgesia During Childhood: Effects of Family History of Alcoholism and Depression,” Addiction 105, no. 4 (2010): 666–75.
    8. Xia Li et al., “Sweet Taste Receptor Gene Variation and Aspartame Taste in Primates and Other Species,” Chemical Senses 36, no. 5 (2011): TK [453–75], doi:10.1093/chemse/bjq145.
    9. Denise Harrison et al., “Analgesic Effects of Sweet-Tasting Solutions for Infants: Current State of Equipoise,” Pediatrics 126, no. 5 (2010): 894–902.
    10. Cees De Graaf and Elizabeth H. Zandstra, “Sweetness Intensity and Pleasantness in Children, Adolescents, and Adults,” Physiology & Behavior 67, no. 4 (1999): 513–20.
    11. Susan S. Schiffman, Elizabeth A. Sattely-Miller, and Ihab E. Bishay, “Time to Maximum Sweetness Intensity of Binary and Ternary Blends of Sweeteners,” Food Quality and Preference 18, no. 2 (2007): TK [405–15].
    12. Susan E. Swithers, Ashley A. Martin, and Terry L. Davidson, “High-Intensity Sweeteners and Energy Balance,” Physiology & Behavior 100, no. 1 (2010): 55–62.
    13. Mattes and Popkin, “Nonnutritive Sweetener.”
    14. Pablo Monsivais, Martine M. Perrigue, and Adam Drewnowski, “Sugars and Satiety: Does the Type of Sweetener Make a Difference?” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86, no. 1 (2007): 116–23.
    15. Danielle R. Reed, Toshiko Tanaka, and Amanda H. McDaniel, “Diverse Tastes: Genetics of Sweet and Bitter Perception,” Physiology & Behavior 88, no. 3 (2006): 215–26.
    16. L. Morin-Audebrand et al., “Different Sensory Aspects of a Food Are Not Remembered with Equal Acuity,” Food Quality and Preference 20, no. 2 (2009): 92–99.
    17. Richard J. Stevenson and Mehmet Mahmut, “Differential Context Effects between Sweet Tastes and Smells,” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 72, no. 8 (2010): 2304–13.
    18. Maik Behrens et al., “Sweet and Umami Taste: Natural Products, Their Chemosensory Targets, and Beyond,” Angewandte Chemie, International Edition 50, no. 10 (2011): 2220–42.
    19. Stuart A. McCaughey, “The Taste of Sugars,” Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 32, no. 5 (2008): 1024–43.
    20. John E. Hayes, “Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Sweetness,” Chemosensory Perception 1, no. 1 (2008): 48–57.
    21. Richard J. Stevenson and Megan J. Oaten, “Sweet Odours and Sweet Tastes Are Conflated in Memory,” Acta Psychologica 134, no. 1 (2010): 105–9.
    22. Barry G. Green et al., “Taste Mixture Interactions: Suppression, Additivity, and the Predominance of Sweetness,” Physiology & Behavior 5, no. 2 (2010): 731–37.
    23. Alexander A. Bachmanov et al., “Chemosensory Factors Influencing Alcohol Perception, Preferences, and Consumption,” Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 27, no. 2 (2003): 220–31.
    24. Nalini Ayya and Harry T. Lawless, “Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of High-Intensity Sweeteners and Sweetener Mixtures,” Chemical Senses 17, no. 3 (1992): 245–59.


    Chapter 11: Sour

    1. Carol M. Christensen, Joseph G. Brand, and Daniel Malamud, “Salivary Changes in Solution pH: A Source of Individual Differences in Sour Taste Perception,” Physiology & Behavior 40, no. 2 (1987): 221–27.
    2. Djin Gie Liem and Julie A. Mennella, “Heightened Sour Preferences During Childhood,” Chemical Senses 28, no. 2 (2003): 173–80.
    3. Cathy A. Pelletier, Harry T. Lawless, and John Horne, “Sweet–Sour Mixture Suppression in Older and Young Adults,” Food Quality and Preference 15, no. 2 (2004): 105–16.
    4. “Functionality of Sugars: Physicochemical Interactions in Foods,” supplement, Eugenia A Davis, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, no. 1 (1995): 170–77S.
    5. Christensen, Brand, and Malamud, “Salivary Changes.”
    6. Sophie R. Bonnans and A. C. Noble, “Interaction of Salivary Flow with Temporal Perception of Sweetness, Sourness, and Fruitiness,” Physiology & Behavior 57, no. 3 (1995): 569–74.
    7. A. I. Spielman, “Interaction of Saliva and Taste,” Journal of Dental Research 69, no. 3 (1990): 838.
    8. O. Lugaz et al., “Time–Intensity Evaluation of Acid Taste in Subjects with Saliva High Flow and Low Flow Rates for Acids of Various Chemical Properties,” Chemical Senses 30, no. 1 (2005): 89–103.
    9. Charles Darwin, “A Biographical Sketch of an Infant,” Mind 2, no. 7 (1877): 285–94.
    10. T. Huque et al., “Sour Ageusia in Two Individuals Implicates Ion Channels of the ASIC and PKD Families in Human Sour Taste Perception at the Anterior Tongue,” PLoS ONE 4, no. 10 (2009): e7347.
    11. Djin Gie Liem and Julie A. Mennella, “Heightened Sour Preferences.”
    12. Edith Ramos Da Conceicao Neta, Suzanne D. Johanningsmeier, and Roger F. McFeeters, “The Chemistry and Physiology of Sour Taste—A Review,” Journal of Food Science 72, no. 2 (2007): R33–38.


    Chapter 12: Umami

    1. 1.     Kikunae Ikeda, “New Seasonings,” trans. Yoko Ogiwara and Yuzo Ninomiya, Chemical Senses 27, no. 9 (2002): TK [847–49]. Previously published in Journal of the Chemical Society of Tokyo 30 (1909): 820–36.
    2. Robert I. Curtis, “Umami and the Foods of Classical Antiquity,” supplement,  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90, no. 3 (2009): 712–18S.
    3. World Health Organization, Global Database on Body Mass Index,
    4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Americans Consume Too Much Salt,” press release, March 26, 2009.
    5. International Glutamate Information Service, Glutamate: The Purest Taste of Umami,
    6. Kumiko Ninomiya, “Natural Occurence,” Food Reviews International 14, nos. 2–3 (1998): 177–211.
    7. Edmund T. Rolls, “Functional Neuroimaging of Umami Taste: What Makes Umami Pleasant?” supplement, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90, no. 3 (2009): 804–13S.
    8. Ikeda, “New Seasonings,” 847–49.
    9. Curtis, “Umami and the Foods.”
    10. Martha Vazquez, Paul B. Pearson, and Gary K. Beauchamp, “Flavor Preferences in Malnourished Mexican Infants,” Physiology & Behavior 28, no. 3 (1982): 513–19.
    11. Shizuko Yamaguchi, “Basic Properties of Umami and Effects on Humans,” Physiology & Behavior 49, no. 5 (1991): 833–41.
    12. Simone Toelstede and Thomas Hofmann, “Kokumi-Active Glutamyl Peptides in Cheeses and Their Biogeneration by Penicillium roquefortii,Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57, no. 9 (2009): 3738–48.
    13. S. Jinap and P. Hajeb, “Glutamate. Its Applications in Food and Contribution to Health,” Appetite 55, no. 1 (2010): 1–10.
    14. John Prescott, “Effects of Added Glutamate on Liking for Novel Food Flavors,” Appetite 42, no. 2 (2004): 143–50.
    15. Shizuko Yamaguchi and Chikahito Takahashi, “Interactions of Monosodium Glutamate and Sodium Chloride on Saltiness and Palatability of a Clear Soup,” Journal of Food Science 49, no. 1 (1984): 82–85.
    16. Jacqueline B. Marcus, “Culinary Applications of Umami,” Food Technology 59, no. 5  (2005): 24–29.


    Chapter 13: Fat: The Sixth Basic Taste . . . and Other Candidates

    1. Richard D. Mattes, “Is There a Fatty Acid Taste?” Annual Review of Nutrition 29, no. 1 (2009): 305–27. First published online as a Review in Advance on April 6, 2009, doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-080508-141108.
    2. Jayaram Chandrashekar et al., “The Taste of Carbonation,” Science 326, no. 5951 (2009): 443, doi: 10.1126/science.1174601.
    3. Greg Miller, “Enzyme Lets You Enjoy the Bubbly,” Science 326, no. 5951 (2009): 349.
    4. Takeaki Ohsu et al., “Involvement of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor in Human Taste Perception,” Journal of Biological Chemistry 285, no. 2 (2010): TK [1016–22].
    5. ScienceDaily, “That Tastes . . . Sweet? Sour? No, It’s Definitely Calcium!” ScienceDaily, August  20, 2008,
    6. Jean-Pierre Montmayeur and Johannes le Coutre, eds., Fat Detection: Taste, Texture, and Post Ingestive Effects (Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2010), TK.
    7. Simon Baron-Cohen, “Is There a Normal Phase of Synaesthesia in Development?” PSYCHE 2, no. 27 (1996): TK.
    8. N. M. Reckmeyer, Z. M. Vickers, and A. S. Csallany, “Effect of Free Fatty Acids on Sweet, Salty, Sour and Umami Tastes,” Journal of Sensory Studies 25, no. 5 (2010): 751–60.
    9. Ohsu et al., “Involvement.”
    10. B. N. Landis et al., “Gustatory Function in Chronic Inflammatory Middle Ear Diseases,” Laryngoscope 115, no. 6 (2005): 1124–27.
    11. Michael G. Tordoff, “Calcium: Taste, Intake, and Appetite,” Physiological Reviews 81, no. 4 (2001): 1567–97.
    12. Michael G. Tordoff, “The Case for a Calcium Appetite in Humans,” in Calcium in Human Health, ed. Connie M. Weaver and Robert P. Heaney (Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2006), 247–66.


    Chapter 14: Taste Magic: The Business and Chemistry of Flavor

    1. Etsuko Sugai et al., “Pungent Qualities of Sanshool-Related Compounds Evaluated by a Sensory Test and Activation of Rat TRPV1,” Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 69, no. 10 (2005): 1951–57.
    2. Diana M. Bautista et al., “Pungent Agents from Szechuan Peppers Excite Sensory Neurons by Inhibiting Two-Pore Potassium Channels,” Nature Neuroscience 11, no. 7 (2008): TK [772–79].
    3. Jakob P. Ley et al., “Structure Activity Relationships of Trigeminal Effects for Artificial and Naturally Occuring Alkamides related to Spilanthol,” (paper, 11th Weurmann Flavour Research Symposium, Roskilde, Denmark, June 21–24, 2005).
    4. Li-chen Wu et al., “Anti-inflammatory Effect of Spilanthol from Spilanthes acmella on Murine Macrophage by Down-Regulating LPS-Induced Inflammatory Mediators,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56, no. 7 (2008): 2341–49.
    5. Ibid.
    6. Michael Nestrud, “Chemosensory Sorcery: Trigeminal Sensations and Culinary Innovations,” (unpublished, personal communication).
    7. Michael Nestrud, “Shocking the Palate,” Mise en Place, no. 50 (2009): 12.
    8. Susana Peciña, Kyle S. Smith, and Kent C. Berridge, “Hedonic Hot Spots in the Brain,” Neuroscientist 12, no. 6 (2006): 500–511.
    9. Joseph M. Melcher and Jonathan W. Schooler, “The Misremembrance of Wines Past: Verbal and Perceptual Expertise Differentially Mediate Verbal Overshadowing of Taste Memory,” Journal of Memory and Language 35, no. 2 (1996): 231–45.
    10. Hilke Plassmann et al., “Marketing Actions Can Modulate Neural Representations of Experienced Pleasantness,” PNAS 105, no. 3 (2008): 1053.
    11. Baba Shiv and Alexander Fedorikhin, “Heart and Mind in Conflict: The Interplay of Affect and Cognition in Consumer Decision Making,” Journal of Consumer Research 26, no 3 (1999): 278–92.
    12. Jakob P. Ley, “Masking Bitter Taste by Molecules,” Chemosensory Perception 1, no. 1 (2008): 58–77.
    13. Johan N. Lundstrom, Sanne Boesveldt, and Jessica Albrecht, “Central Processing of the Chemical Senses: An Overview,” ACS Chemical Neuroscience 2, no. 1 (2011): 5–16.


    Chapter 15: Terrible Tastes Taste Terrible

    1. Kendall J. Eskine, Natalie A. Kacinik, and Jesse J. Prinz, “A Bad Taste in the Mouth: Gustatory Disgust Influences Moral Judgment,” Psychological Science 22, no. 3 (2011): 295–99, doi: 10.1177/0956797611398497.
    2. Paul Rozin, “Getting to Like the Burn of Chili Pepper: Biological, Psychological, and Cultural Perspectives,” in Chemical Senses, ed. Barry G. Green, J. Russell Mason, and Morley R. Kare, vol. 2, Irritation (New York: Marcel Dekker, 1990), 231–69.
    3. Paul Rozin, Jonathan Haidt, and Clark R. McCauley, “Disgust,” in Handbook of Emotions, 3rd ed., ed. Michael Lewis, Jeannette M. Haviland-Jones, and Lisa Feldman Barrett (New York: Guilford Press, 2008), 757–76.
    4. D. A. McCamey, T. M. Thorpe, and J. P. McCarthy, “Coffee Bitterness,” Developments in Food Science 25 (1990): 169–82.
    5. Jenny Tong et al., “Ghrelin Enhances Olfactory Sensitivity and Exploratory Sniffing in Rodents and Humans,” Journal of Neuroscience 31, no. 15 (2011): 5841–46.
    6. Paul Rozin, “Getting to Like the Burn of Chili Pepper.”
    7. Rozin, Haidt, and McCauley, “Disgust.”
    8. P. Rozin and T. A. Vollmecke, “Food Likes and Dislikes,” Annual Review of Nutrition 6 (1986): 433–56.
    9. Paul Rozin, Food Is Fundamental, Fun, Frightening, and Far-Reaching, Social Research 66, no. 1 (1999): 9–30.
    10. Elvira Costell, Amparo Tárrega, and Sara Bayarri, “Food Acceptance: The Role of Consumer Perception and Attitudes,” Chemosensory Perception 3, no. 1 (2010): 42–50.


    Chapter 16: Perspective

    1. Jason Castro, “The Learning Brain Gets Bigger—Then Smaller,” Scientific American, May 24, 2011,
    2. Mats Bende and Steven Nordin, “Perceptual Learning in Olfaction: Professional Wine Tasters versus Controls,” Physiology & Behavior 62, no. 5 (1997): 1065–70.
    3. Wendy V. Parr, K. Geoffrey White, and David A. Heatherbell, “Exploring the Nature of Wine Expertise: What Underlies Wine Experts’ Olfactory Recognition Memory Advantage?,”  Food Quality and Preference 15, no. 5 (2004): 411–20.
    4. Richard D. Mattes, Leslie M. Shaw, and Karl Engelman, “Effects of Cannabinoids (Marijuana) on Taste Intensity and Hedonic Ratings and Salivary Flow of Adults,” Chemical Senses 19, no. 2 (1994): 125–40.
    5. Joseph M. Melcher and Jonathan W. Schooler, “The Misremembrance of Wines Past: Verbal and Perceptual Expertise Differentially Mediate Verbal Overshadowing of Taste Memory,” Journal of Memory and Language 35, no. 2 (1996): 231–45.
    6. Ryusuke Yoshida et al., “Endocannabinoids Selectively Enhance Sweet Taste,” PNAS 107, no. 2 (2010): 935–39.
    7. Daniel Michaels, “Test Flight: Lufthansa Searches for Savor in the Sky,” Wall Street Journal, July 27, 2010.
    8. David A. Priilaid, “Wine’s Placebo Effect: How the Extrinsic Cues of Visual Assessments Mask the Intrinsic Quality of South African Red Wine,” International Journal of Wine Marketing 18, no. 1 (2006): 17–32.
    9. Ryan S. Elder and Aradhna Krishna, “The Effects of Advertising Copy on Sensory Thoughts and Perceived Taste,” Journal of Consumer Research 36,  no. 5 (2010): 748–56.
    10. Michael Siegrist and Marie-Eve Cousin, “Expectations Influence Sensory Experience in a Wine Tasting,” Appetite 52, no. 3 (2009): 762–65.
    11. Monell Chemical Senses Center, “Enhanced Sweet Taste: This Is Your Tongue on Cannabis,” press release, December 21, 2009.


    Chapter 17: The Chef Who Lost His Smell and Other Tragedies of Taste

    1. Roger Ebert’s Web site, (reprinted with permission).
    2. Thomas Hummel et al., “Effects of Olfactory Training in Patients with Olfactory Loss,” Laryngoscope 119, no. 3 (2009): 496–99.
    3. Steven M. Bromley, “Smell and Taste Disorders: A Primary Care Approach,” American Family Physician 61, no. 2 (2000): TK [427–36].
    4. Kaoru Sato, Sohei Endo, and Hiroshi Tomita, “Sensitivity of Three Loci on the Tongue and Soft Palate to Four Basic Tastes in Smokers and Non-smokers, supplement, Acta Oto-laryngologica: Supplementum 546 (2002): 74–82.
    5. P. L. Sandow, M. Hejrat-Yazdi, and M. W. Heft, “Taste Loss and Recovery Following Radiation Therapy,” Journal of Dental Research 85, no. 7 (2006): 608.
    6. Natalie Stinton et al., “Influence of Smell Loss on Taste Function,” Behavioral Neuroscience 124, no. 2 (2010): 256–64.
    7. Lance O. Bauer and April E. Mott, “Differential Effects of Cocaine, Alcohol, and Nicotine Dependence on Olfactory Evoked Potentials,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 42, no. 1 (1996): 21–26.
    8. Mechtild M. Vennemann, Thomas Hummel, and Klaus Berger, “The Association between Smoking and Smell and Taste Impairment in the General Population,” Journal of Neurology 255, no. 8 (2008): 1121–26.
    9. Jennifer J. Stamps and Linda M. Bartoshuk, “Trigeminal Input May Compensate for Taste Loss during Flavor Perception” (poster, Association for Chemoreception Sciences 2010 Annual Meeting, St. Pete Beach, FL, April 21–25, 2010).
    10. Richard E. Frye, Brian S. Schwartz, and Richard L. Doty, “Dose-Related Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Olfactory Function,” JAMA 263, no. 9 (1990): 1233–36.


    Chapter 18: How Taste Affects Your Waist

    1. Reinhold G. Laessle et al., “A Comparison of the Validity of Three Scales for the Assessment of Dietary Restraint,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology 98, no. 4 (1989): 504–7.
    2. Eric Stice et al., “Relation of Reward from Food Intake and Anticipated Food Intake to Obesity: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology 117, no. 4 (2008): 924–35.
    3. Viren Ranawana, C. Jeya K. Henry, and Megan Pratt, “Degree of Habitual Mastication Seems to Contribute to Interindividual Variations in the Glycemic Response to Rice but Not to Spaghetti,” Nutrition Research 30, no. 6 (2010): 382–91.
    4. James C. Whorton, “Physiologic Optimism”: Horace Fletcher and Hygienic Ideology in Progressive America,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 55, no. 1 (1981): 59.
    5. L. Margaret Barnett, “The Impact of ‘Fletcherism’ on the Food Policies of Herbert Hoover during World War I,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 66, no. 2 (1992): 234.
    6. Jennifer L. Fleissner, “Henry James’s Art of Eating,” ELH 75, no. 1 (2008): 27–62.
    7. Percy G. Stiles, “Horace Fletcher,” American Journal of Public Health 9, no. 3 (1919): TK [210–11].
    8. Center for Science in the Public Interest, “Under the Influence: How External Cues Make Us Overeat,” Nutrition Action Healthletter (May 2011): TK.
    9. Richard D. Mattes, “Gustation as a Determinant of Ingestion: Methodological Issues,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 41, no. 4 (1985): 672–83; and Richard D. Mattes and David J. Mela, “Relationships Between and Among Selected Measures of Sweet-Taste Preference and Dietary Intake,” Chemical Senses 11, no. 4 (1986): 523–39.
    10. Patricia Pliner and Dragana Zec, “Meal Schemas during a Preload Decrease Subsequent Eating,” Appetite 48, no. 3 (2007): 278–88.
    11. Jessica E. Stewart et al., “Marked Differences in Gustatory and Gastrointestinal Sensitivity to Oleic Acid between Lean and Obese Men,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 93, no. 4 (2011): 703–11.
    12. Carey K. Morewedge, Young Eun Huh, and Joachim Vosgerau, “Thought for Food: Imagined Consumption Reduces Actual Consumption,” Science 330, no. 610 (2010): 1530.
    13. Lucy F. Donaldson et al., “Taste and Weight: Is There a Link?” supplement, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90, no. 3 (2009): 800–803S.
    14. A. R. Hirsch and R. Gomez, “Weight Reduction through Inhalation of Odorants,” Journal of Neurological and Orthopaedic Medicine and Surgery 16, no. 1 (1995): 28–31.
    15. S. N. Mayer, R. S. Davidson, and C. B. Hensley, “The Role of Specific Olfactory Stimulation in Appetite Suppression and Weight Loss,” Journal of Advancement in Medicine 12, no. 1 (1999): 13–21.
    16. Paul Rozin, “Why We’re So Fat (and the French Are Not),” Psychology Today 33, no. 6 (2000): 64–68.
    17. Mary Abbott Hess, “Taste: The Neglected Nutritional Factor,” supplement, Journal of the American Dietetic Association 97, no. 10 (1997): S205(3).
    18. Nitika Garg, Brian Wansink, and J. Jeffrey Inman, “The Influence of Incidental Affect on Consumers’ Food Intake,” Journal of Marketing 71, no. 1 (2007), 194–206.
    19. Brian Wansink, James E. Painter, and Jill North, “Bottomless Bowls: Why Visual Cues of Portion Size May Influence Intake,” Obesity Research 13, no. 1 (2005): 93–100.
    20. Hirsch and Gomez, “Weight Reduction.”


    Chapter 20: Summary: Sensory Truths You Never Suspected

    1. Brian Wansink, Jill North, and James E. Painter, “Why Visual Cues of Portion Size May Influence Intake,” (poster).
    2. Hugh B. Urban, “The Conservative Character of Tantra: Secrecy, Sacrifice and This-Worldly Power in Bengali Śākta Tantra,” International Journal of Tantric Studies 6, no. 1, TK.
    4. Sofie G. Lemmens et al., “Staggered Meal Consumption Facilitates Appetite Control without Affecting Postprandial Energy Intake,” Journal of Nutrition 141, no. 3 (2011): 482, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source.


    Chapter 21: 15 Ways to Get More from Every Bite

    1. France Bellisle and Anne-Marie Dalix, “Cognitive Restraint Can Be Offset by Distraction, Leading to Increased Meal Intake in Women,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 74, no. 2 (2001): 197–200.
    2. Paul Rozin, “The Meaning of Food in Our Lives: A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Eating and Well-Being,” supplement, Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 37, no. 2 (2005): TK [S107–12].
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    4. R. Matsuo, “Role of Saliva in the Maintenance of Taste Sensitivity,” Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine 11, no. 2 (2000): 216–29.
    5. Bellisle and Dalix, “Cognitive Restraint.”